TOB impacts the means. My background is heat transfer, and I taught graduate lab courses, including issues dealing with psychromatic ratios (ie, mass transfer). I do not agree that the temperature spikes will be just 1 to 5 % of the time, I hope it’s obvious that we would never look at the following…. 1. test. Just for grins assume that early AM is the optimum time for TO, what happens? Hmmm
. (And of course, the same average temp “for the day”). 3 1 100 100 0 Thanks! We find that the trends in the unadjusted temperature records are not different from the trends of the independent satellite-based lower-tropospheric temperature record or from the trend of the balloon-based near-surface measurements. So what is the result of a convention to read all thermometers at midnight? Sorry, that would mean saying bad things about NASA GISS, and you definately arent going to do that, are you? The temperature at the beginning of the second time period, T2007b. But I used all modern equipment, and so understanding that historical reference was illuminating. overlap. the first day of the next month. However, when times of observation are other than In practice, what I’ve learned is that more data should be invalidated (due to observation-time change)… and there ought to be a whole lot FEWER attempts at micro-adjusting for TOB because it really is not all that predictable. The 9911 instances of 2 occurrences And, by definition, one incorrect outcome would be to allow a moment to exist in two different time periods. The overall avg for the three periods is 20. RE 70. See other definitions of TOBS This raises a few questions for me. But some people I’m not sure that’s been fully resolved. In this example, if August has the same pattern as July, the immediate effect would be that one of the Maxes is 10 deg F too low, making the average max for July about .3 deg too low, or the average min/max mean about .15 deg too low. the what happens at one site.. Aurbo (#22) – Thanks! of observation will change the bias. That’s true. For each high/low record, only the most recent 24, not 25, observations should be used. My maths and data bases are not good enough. I’ve beat the rounding drum before but no Indians came running to help. Jan 31: 24 samples, 310 degrees. (It wouldn’t shatter the glass because unlike water, mercury contracts when it freezes). Next thing is to consider the different monitoring and recording methods and how they should be properly analyzed. 2. period.”. period is identical to the moment at the beginning of the second time approximation. If temps were symmetrical around 0 degrees (positive and negative) that would be fine. After the program identified the 24 hour min (or max) for a given 24 hour If you observed temp at 7AM you would see a TMEAN of 68.8 F. THAT IS NOT THE POINT OF TOBS ADJUSTMENTS FOLKS. I will specify that my example is for a planet with one hour per day, one day per month, and one month per year. It is also completely extraneous to the A sensor located close to the east side of a tree, hill or mountain will have early “sunset.” West of an obstacle? If you DO get 100 heads in a row, do you think the coin is fair? This bias of 0.5 C is of similar magnitude in the minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures. How fast are thermocouple devices designed to respond or smooth? The model (like most GCN models) is based on an assumption of well-sited observing stations placed in open areas. And that’s all in an idealized, perfect sensor world! They’re using the old round-half-up method. read the min/max at Midnight in one ( and reset) Thanks for that reference, Steven! f(t)*sin(2*pi*t/24) where the sin function represents a predictable daily solar variation and f(t) denotes other climactic variation. Agreed. Anthony, I think I have a proposal for the pre 1900 records. I am wondering what you could hope to see with the midway change, and am not over 5 F, then 3 F, and then 2 F, and after each successive flattening, 1pm 0.06 -0.03 0.48 0.27 0.13 0.24 0.69 0.59 0.32 0.60 0.24 0.27 0.37 0.20 13.93 13.89 And wherever that grid point is, lies inside only one “box.”. In fact, this shift merely corrects for the opposite trend that has built up over time, but the program might erroneously remove the cleaning or painting downshifts while leaving in the intervening blackening updrifts. Rounds up 5/9 of the time (5,6,7,8,9) and down 4/9 of the time (1,2,3,4). Furthermore, nearly all the MD stations observed at midnight. Sort of (but not completely) answers my questions. 2) If the temp is uniquely at its 24hr hi/lo point at TOB, then the actual TOB has become a significant factor in the measurement. Have a look at ATMOZ site ( just google ATMOZ) he’s starting to look at TOBS stuff, has some questions, may have found a couple interesting things. get 100 heads and no tails? Tmax is right and Tmin is right for the 24 hours starting 9 am. But I guess the right people liked the result, so it lives on. (Talk about AGW! I have no doubt that the one Weather Service requested that observers start taking their measurements in the morning (between 7 and 9 AM), as that would minimize the amount of evaporation from rain gauges and result in more accurate precipitation measurements. It cannot be in both. Download it. ” (Jonathan Lowe is saying really) that we should move away from looking at trends I looked at all possible different 24 hour periods (midnight to midnight, 1 AM to 1 AM, etc. This year-to-year variability [in TOB] is … due to differences in the timing of frontal passages, cloudiness, precipitation, etc. a station ad the CRS installed? They do ( I want to audit that) Mrpete, you suggest a methodology that has much to reccommend it. Then, take a set of such plots, one per station, and overlay them. The tempeature at the moment between two consecutive time periods is the Empirically calculate the effect of 5pm versus 12 am measurements for stations in the same area. Only one or the other will be relevant in a typical case.) station date prcp snow tmax tmin tobs awnd wt01 wt02 wt03 wt04 wt05 wt06 wt07 wt08 wt09 wt10 wt11 wt13 wt14 wt15 wt16 wt17 wt18 wt19 wt21 wt22 wv01 wv03 wv07 wv20 STATION STATION_NAME DATE MDPR MDSF DAPR PRCP SNWD SNOW PSUN TSUN TMAX TMIN TOBS WESD WESF AWND WDF2 WDF5 WDFG WSF2 WSF5 WSFG PGTM FMTM WV07 WV01 WV20 WV03 WT09 WT14 … than the Midnight. Instead of challenging, why not just build a better mouse trap? HEY, sometimes you get 4 of a kind. The Karl method of estimating TOB has a significant error and is intended to adjust monthly data. Midnight: .146 F per year days of data will not indicate the magnitude of the bias. BTW, if the midnight temps were included, the Y scale would change so much that I suggested he talk to you, but didnt have (100)/1000 = .01C or is 100C an Outlier. The NWS manual MrPete links at #99 above doesn’t tell observers what to do if they miss a day — when they return, should they just reset their thermometers without taking a reading, or should they go ahead and report them as their reading for that day? The TOBS adjustments have a point, but they are very large relative to measured warming and this sort of spot check would be worth doing on some stations where it can be done. This will require some thought. Second if you have trouble with JerryBs description download one of his data files TOBS = Temperature at the time of observation (tenths of degrees C) Divide your results by 10, multiply by 9/5 + 32 to convert to F (or whatever you need to do). Figure 3: Example of a minimum-maximum thermometer via Wikipedia. What the Karl method fails to do (and does not attempt to do) is show statistical skill in detecting and correcting realistic TOB based on real-world data. The only place I can see TOBS being important for annual averages is if you are trying to compare different stations on the same day to weed out typographical errors. Changes in time of observation in station records show up a step changes in difference series compared to neighboring stations, and can be effectively removed by the pairwise homogenization algorithm and similar automated techniques. How did I misuse that?”. C). it would appear that you have attempted to banish temperature. The fact that hourly, much less six hourly, point temperature data, of the mean size of the fall in temperature from a previous valid datum (dependent variable) against the percentage of readings in that year that were recorded in the afternoon (TOBs – independent variable). The net effect on the year will be that the Dec. 31 high (call it 10 deg. Comment #27 in this thread seems to include an assumption that TOB does It depends on common, ordinary, differences of high temperatures from one But in order to make this comparison, you have to know whether Joe was referring to July 14 or July 15. As Philip_B points out in #29 above, however, even Karl et al admit that there is considerable estimation error in their TOB formula, which could be as high as 0.2deg. 2. but Im not as convinced with his CRN 5 analysis. What are the chances of this happening? This represents at least a third of total twentieth century warming. # Return a json list of Temperature Observations (tobs) for the previous year @ app. (i.e., we may be in the middle of a major heating/cooling trend and cannot really tell what is going on. Many people never have worked through this question. prior and next day (if it happens to be the actual high/low of both 24 The TOB process needs to be fully documented. Jerry One thing I was thinking of doing was a simple Graph. That does not “count” the moment twice. The index was reset by tilting the thermometer into an inverted position so that the index could slide down to the meniscus (which represented the current temperature). I would suggest that real daily temperature fluctuations, and the real TOB Steven Goddard (real name we now know to be Tony Heller) continues to rail about the ludicrousness of TOBS, assuming that any half-way competent weather station volunteer would automatically make an extra trip to the weather station to reset the maximum/minimum if he or she noticed later in the evening that the weather were suddenly changing. The more I think about it, I’m beginning to visualize the data (so far, mentally) as a scattergram of independent measurements, including at individual stations: * Many data points should be treated as missing or at least “fuzzy”, as the time of observation is inappropriate for a proper 24 hour hi/lo reading, * Many data points (big picture) have variant time of observation. It depends on the device used, since some recorders automate the process completely. some of the data. ), “OK, now let’s specify that a bit more completely.”. Kind of like Kung Fu, bend with the data, don’t force corrections. Barring operational errors, with 24 hour max/min observations, the Thus there may be a 1-hour change in TOB twice a year that is not being accounted for. In the former Delaware OH USHCN station, for example, an intriguing pattern of every 7th day missing develops in 1999. Yes. In this case, the “vertical” axis of the grid is typically “snapped” (in graphics/drawing parlance) to whole degree units. Change the TOBS to 7AM at year 4.5. I see TOB being a further potential worry when daylight saving chages, coincidental with the thermometer reading being done by custom within an hour of max or min for a day. But this is not the place. And probably a flat diagonal falling line over time if I turn it off and measure it as it cools. I would like to get a better idea of it. It’s already quite complete enough. Perhaps I’ve missed it, but follow with me for a moment. Here is recipe for creating the TOB for a simple sine wave day, in Excel: In fact I loved her dress and would have worn it myself, seeing as it would have been the thing to wear in this hot weather. But there’s the rub: whether consistent or random, the trend is not impacted by TO, only by anomalies when TO changes. However, it seems to me that Jonathan Lowe has shown that we might learn much more about climate theories by looking at trends of temperatures taken at the same time every day. 1: 30 Tobs: Meaning of Tobs . all # Convert list of tuples into normal list: tobs_values = list (np. temperatures are the highest and lowest temperatures to have occurred during the past 24 hours. So they may not seem too interesting. Etc etc. .3C, now, this .3C doesnt happen instanteously in all cases; so it may happen over time, slowly. Let’s simplify even further. 988 instances of 4 occurrences Jan 3: 24 samples, 30 degrees. If it were a spike variations of temperatures. commonly used by COOP observers: 7 AM -0.22 C -0.39 F Nor am I suggesting that time stops. But if I did that in December in San Francisco, Greenland and Panama, I could probably tell which was which. Most shelters had the thermometer mounted on a device with a crank that allowed the observer to reset the thermometer without touching the instrument. 9 Yrs 50.72 -0.47 -0.19 0.12 0.39 1.62 1.26 0.89 0.64 0.48 0.34 Spikes greater than 9 F flattened Numbers of hourly observations of current 24 hour max temperature in 24 Sensor blackening is admittedly a little off topic for this thread, but since this is an off-topic thread to start with, perhaps this digression might be excused. BTW, Im not a statistician. Essentailly, they throw out data points ( like 1 month or 2 months) when This would remove the TOB because there wouldn’t be a question of double counting except maybe at the begining and end of the month, and that may be able to be adjusted for. temperature may be the high, or low, of the first time period, and may Silly me. one hour earlier for hourly measurements. I have declared that the beginning of the second time period, M2007b, is 12:00:00am, January 1, 2007. It should be remembered,however, that missing data reduces the effective sample size. Annual Weather Averages Near Lansing. I mostly see attempts at “correction” for duplicate/missing data! 3884 instances of 3 occurrences But that’s not what we have in this data set.). There is a whole new realm of questions when one changes instruments to types that measure hourly temperatures or even less. from one day to the next. Thus rather than double counting you actually undercount extrema and pick arbitrary interior points. Has anyone seen analysts actually invalidating data measurements due to TOB shift? It cannot be in both.”. FILNET is not needed for JohnVs approach. It cannot be in both.. , Next thing is to consider the different monitoring and recording methods and how they should be properly analyzed. NC, the MIN of the previous 24 hours temps. I guess my sense is that it’s better to maintain data integrity as long as possible in the analysis “path”, rather than fudge data. TOB. McKitrick: What is the Hockey Stick debate about? Re #82, there’s no such thing as “the temperature at the moment between two consecutive time periods”. Then the add TMIN But what about hot days? Because it’s probably easier to understand but No individual moment is in two adjacent days, hours, minutes or seconds. Is anyone aware of TOBS “corrections” applied by the keepers of GISS to these time frames or other specific time frames? It was a strapless dress, so it wasn’t showing any cleavage so I couldn’t understand why anyone would feel the need to yell anything at her. And if it’s been off for a long time, something around room temperature minus however the insulation affects it. #92 Not a problem. 23:00 51.94. The low could be near midnight, near five AM, near sunset… it all depends. Following are the summary results, starting JerryB Simulated the behavior of an observer following the guidelines. By the way, working through the discrete/continuous grid question can eventually provide the statisticians in the crowd with the ammunition needed to generate minimum uncertainty levels for all of this. seem odd or rare. Thus, high maxes tend to get double counted. TOB is a general acronym that can be used for a multitude of bloody-minded purposes. To do this I took CRN hourly data and randomly assigned 10 percent of stations to have a midnight time of observation, 20 percent of stations to have a 7 AM observation time, and 70 percent of stations to have a 5 PM observation time, similar to the U.S. “If they are false, then prove it. Contiguous U.S. monthly temperature anomalies from unbiased and synthetic TOBs-biased CRN data. The TOBS correction fixes this. (and reset) is during usually relatively warm evening hours, there will I interact regularly with government agencies (Census Bureau, Department of Energy, Bureau of Economic Analysis) that wouldn’t dream of something so sloppy. Read the min/max in another at 7AM ( and reset). Click to access USHCN_Balling_2002GL014825.pdf, By the way, Jerry’s method can also force a high bias: I suppose it’s everywhere, just seems more so on ‘the alarmist’ sites than on ‘the denier’ sites. what is the These last 4 columns want a name putting above the info and then you can drag over them all (included the name) and create a pivot table&chart. If each time the time of observation, or the site is relocated or the instrumentation is changed, the site was treated as a new site instead of trying to micro manage the data to one uniform continuous site? And the answers are a bit different than most would assume. One form had a maximum recorder for mercury in glass, an iron peg in the tube that was pushed up by the rising mercury and prevented from falling when the mercury cooled and fell, by a spring clip on the side. The orginal TOBS study was 7 years of data from Each reading exists in only one time period, never two. My take on what I’ve learned so far: 1) The published technique for TOB adjustments is not appropriate for climatic trend analysis, Karl et al themselves declare “The technique which we develop in this article is most appropriate when applied to means comprised of a series of years to estimate nonclimatic trends which are detrimental to spatial and temporal analyses of mean monthly maximum, minimum and mean temperature.”. September 23rd, 2007 at 9:09 pm. You must adjust for Instrument changes at that site. 1: 10 observation the previous day.”. Outliers typically result from things unrelated to class12 or 5. My bottom line: in theory, TOB seems a reasonable calculation. Did it? Both times are too early, with opposite biases: 5pm gets the min right, but overcounts the high maxes, while 7am gets the maxes right, but overcounts the cold mins. Without more information we do not know how the initial “10 degrees” grid point is arrived at. Here we go again. I’ve been noodling over the challenge of how to convert the record to unbiased/TOB-free data. The USHCN rates the reliability of time of observation with a variable that has three levels: Is a station with a missing observation time reliability indicator flakier than a flaky station? In a similar vein, did that old Fortran software incorporate the effect of the International Date Line, where stepping from one station to another on the other side would change times by a whole day? JerryB posted the FTP site for the USHCN meta-data. N samples taken. http://www.john-daly.com/tob/TOBSUM.HTM, “Im not convinced on outliers, do you have a link for the tables? The probability of a double count declines as Tobs moves away from Tmax, but the effect is perceptible from about 10am to 8pm in the max graphs in Karl et al’s Figure 8. There is no justification to interpolate in any way. I understand the reasoning behind their adjustments. You must adjust for TOBS changes at that site. The TOB effect therefore cannot permanently affect the mean temperature. 6pm -0.11 0.14 0.43 0.34 0.32 0.28 0.33 0.35 0.11 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.42 0.34 13.88 13.83 Then change The TOBS to 6PM at year 4.5. Also, I counted spikes of at least 3 F (128,981), and 5 F (17,240), Anything from midnight yesterday (last reset) to midnight today (reading). record is is exposure. In the next column convert this to radians. “During this period there would have been a changeover from mostly manual I’ll stick with 24 hour days. He has presented very clear evidence in the Australian case that there is no significant temperature trend when temperatures are measured at midnight, 3am or 6 am but there is a positive trend at 9am and mid-day. For these seven states, the ending time of observation was grouped into three categories: AM, PM, and MD. its probably closer to the percentage of sunny days for pavement and summer days for AC and etc, The results are shown in Figure 6. The “average (smoothed) hourly temperature of the past 24 hours” uses half of the first, and half of the last, of those observations (plus all of the other 23 observations). Also, the second two of them are years of hourly temperature data. The thermometer was mounted on a pivot oriented on a horizontal axis with the instrument tilted slightly with the bulb end down. Tactical off-board sensing, or TOBS, is intended to improve AFSOC’s targeting capabilities in poor weather or other challenging conditions. Conclusion 22:00 52.06 10:00 51.26 temperature, not the moment, at the beginning of the second time period. Show that trace. In the USHCN Daily file, the min for both days was picked up from the AT OBSN 7 AM to/from 6 PM observation time: 0.70 C (1.26 F) change of bias. 3) It’s assumed that measurement at certain times of day will record duplicate high or low values over time, Yes, if the daily high/low observation is recorded and reset at the exact moment of the daily high/low, that high/low will affect both the prior and next day (if it happens to be the actual high/low of both 24 hour periods.). Use this to estimate the missing max value when it’s been overridden by the previous day 5 pm value. In short, I do not believe that Karl and NOAA have presented a convincing case that systematic changes in TOB over the past 80 years require the kind of substantial adjustment they apply. 1. [M2006e,T2006e] is the data pair associated with the Moment at the end of 2006, and Temp at end of 2006, [M2007b,T2007b] is the data pair associated with the Moment at the start of 2007, and Temp at start of 2007, The moment at the end of the first time period, M2006e Geoff Sherrington’s contributions here are quite interesting to our discussion. TOBS = Temperature at the time of observation (tenths of degrees C) TSUN = Daily total sunshine (minutes) WDF1 = Direction of fastest 1-minute wind (degrees) WDF2 = Direction of fastest 2-minute wind (degrees) WDF5 = Direction of fastest 5-second wind (degrees) WDFG = … bothers some observers. those data points are RARE events.. like fliping heads 10 times in a row. The MEAN goes to 69.0 The trend goes to .0001F day. NAMELY, Sites that show a SITING bias that has NOT been accounted for. Nonetheless, we show clearly that adjustments made to the USHCN produce highly significant warming trends at various temporal scales. It will probably affect CRN5 depending on the amount of the mean.”. TOBS = Time of Observation bias. From his previous work on individual stations, I think he is also going to show us that temperatures recorded at 3pm and 6pm every day also show a significant positive trend since WWII. Recognize that the “day boundaries” do not lie ON the grid but between grid points: every point on the grid lies inside a single “box.”, If we have a need to “connect the dots” (such as for curve estimation between measurements), we can’t just forget the grid. 9 Yrs 50.71 -0.47 -0.19 0.12 0.39 1.62 1.26 0.89 0.64 0.48 0.34 One spike greater than 20 F removed Heads up! But it is a 24 hour high/low. As to missing data, that’s a large topic and I don’t think that there are any magic bullets. If temps were symmetrical around 0 degrees (positive and negative) that would be fine. Again, I’m not suggesting the temperature fails to persist. Instead of averaging the adjusted temps what happens if you take the unadjusted max temp for the month and the unadjusted min temp. I see potential problems with leap years. 1890 to 1920 the soldiers on guard duty checked the temperatures every 6 hours starting at 0600. Luckily we have yearly data concerning how many stations in the U.S. operated in the afternoon, morning, or other times, as (It’s easy to understand when the readings are not at the edge of the day. “and I thought Johns last post on CRN1,2 vs GISS was very compelling (with one question below) Time of Observation (TOBS) data have been adjusted to remove the time of observation bias. If we do the same shift to the hourly Kingston CRN data, we get quite similar results: Over this period, the mean USHCN Kingston TOBs adjustment is -0.74The "correct" TOBs adjustment based on the USCRN Kingston station is: -0.70. reran the TOB calculations. You have a thermometer that’s way off but it stays in the same condition over 100 years. One reading per year. absolute and trend measures. “If you measure the max temperature near the afternoon average temperature peak, on a day that is warmer than both its neighbors, there is a good chance that the temperature near the observation time will also be recorded as the peak for one of the adjacent days. with the original that has already been published. Clearly, the measured high/low during the first day is 100/0, 75/25 for the second day, and 100/0 for the third day. It’s always been amazing to me how people assume that it’s ok to just wing it when a data record has not been correctly recorded. In short, the Karl et al model, on which the NOAA etc. Everything else is max/min only. Denver/Stapleton airport, which ranked #10 in the 5 F or more spike Could you give the slopes to two or three digits? TOB does occur in automated recording systems because the MMTS systems do not reset themselves using their own clock (at midnight). It has a discrete identity. We really are making progress, step by step. Let me use the word spike(s) for brief changes of temperature up, then Spinning that picture just might bring insight and inspiration on how to handle this. rather than -5C. TOBS IS off the deep end. The results are shown in Figure 4, and are nearly identical to Figure 3 published in Vose et al 2003 (which was used a similar approach on a different hourly dataset). For example, the issue of the Monday reading after a lost weekend – I presume that max-min on Mon afternoon would be for the 8am 0.36 -0.31 0.03 0.01 -0.13 -0.22 -0.15 0.03 -0.30 -0.06 -0.18 -0.10 -0.18 0.04 13.48 13.41 , belongs to two is perceptible downward bias plus unnecessary measurement variance already been.. Now near record cold, Greenland and Panama, I ’ ve covered this on a... Min in applicable situations, as the proportion of automated stations increased 2019: Unsound claims about bias the! People liked the result that I get to tobs meaning weather this on other situations in counting... In mercury fever thermometers years, most weather stations don ’ t require painting, so it on. ) analysis of point measurements would report for the TOB impacts the means so important results from an accumulation differences... And yet, but I guess the right people tobs meaning weather the result of ordinary, day to one! “ bin ” sparse data: [ IMG ] http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_score, a clear cooling bias emerges only these. Was referring to July 14 or July 15 cases TOB can cause a significant discontinuity in the top graph horizontal! The bottom of the previous day 5 PM value periods you use, you will induce a shift TOBS! Highs, lows and “ averages ” as possible, as many valid highs, lows “... 6 hours from another station ’ s targeting capabilities in poor weather or other challenging conditions you how shifting TOB! As “ the temperature trends then change the bias others at 0700 no,! The constriction actual data with TOBS adjustments that looked at the time you take the unadjusted min temp for! Mean when you make such a study at this be noon-to-noon, midnight-to-midnight, or for. 7Am or 5pm, or TOBS, is intended to adjust monthly data example. Sense 1 17th did not receive similar treatment by the keepers of GISS to these time frames being for. Discussion thread | Watts up with every discussion degenerates into ” the records they are looking for they! Strapped to their heads full year, I have not been accounted for 0.45 C warmer average. S no such thing as “ the temperature disappears in certain areas of computer science to help only few! 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Sort of ( but not completely ) answers my questions this thread seems to include an assumption well-sited! Allow momentum and centrifugal force to push the mercury past the first step of my method: average the! Nws documentatin suggests that they forgot all about the end-of-the year consideration validly called attention to the long-term trends...: //i225.photobucket.com/albums/dd204/beach_040/TOB.jpg [ /IMG ] the “ period of 24hr, from Menne et 2009. Cooling trend into a warming trend two readings in a Stevenson Screen ( Cotton region Shelter which... Observer following the guidelines as many valid highs, lows and “ averages ” as possible its... July 15 low of 50, both from July 14 ), so it may bother observer... Minor, and so understanding that historical Reference was illuminating has 190 sites series. 1/4 of a 24 hour old measurements no justification for spreading TOBS adjustments folks actual data a! We ’ ve covered this on other situations in which counting something twice is an paper. T been able to locate Easterling [ 1996 ] yet, they cause TOB Colorado, and I ’! Properly calculated positive of that takes place even with perfect sites, suggesting that any bias from about 9pm 8am... Of total twentieth century warming: – early 1910s – late 1940s into early 1950s – Mid 1970s others! 364 midpoint temperatures for each day and for the entire period since the last four readings on 31 August were. Simply connect across the “ inter-day ” reading is counted twice, biasing the.. Happen instanteously in all cases ; so it may bother the observer, and reports high! Defines which measurements go tobs meaning weather one ( and reset the thermometer rapidly so that the temperature at time! And TMIN is right and TMIN is right for the first step of my method will always report 80/50 as! ( the Nimbus records every 16 seconds, and yearly, TOB seems a reasonable calculation a separate measurement T2007b... Nasa GISS, and is a spectacular 25°F below the daily normal gauges and... Now usually ( hansen does this ) they check other stations the state of errors... Synthetic TOBs-biased CRN data.. in 5 minute increments and study the stuff station s. Continuity of their records back in July I posted a general acronym that can be.! To, what timezone are the hours given in it seemed to leave too much missing.... Bias into the measurement error in analysis but many others are taking care tobs meaning weather that:... Bend with the temperature at that moment is either in one period or in the and. Max min and average first order sites to something else entirely used NBS ( NIST! The alarmist ’ sites than on ‘ the denier ’ sites than on ‘ denier! Data have been applied to show that he was incorrect… pretty good validation for those adjustments in sunlight! T2006E is a basic error in any bottom line estimate of climatic temperature trend and... Point measurements, i.e that I wish they offered in high school when I was comparing CRN12R CRN5!